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Urinary tract infections among males

The urinary tract comprises organs responsible for urine production and excretion. In males, this includes the kidneys, bladder, ureters (tubes connecting kidneys to bladder), and urethra (tube from bladder to penis tip). UTIs can occur if harmful bacteria accumulate in any part of the urinary tract, though they're more prevalent in women, men are also susceptible.



Two Urinary Tract Infection Variants

Upper-tract infections occur in ureters or kidneys, while lower-tract infections affect bladder, prostate, or urethra.


Symptoms


  • Frequent urination

  • Persistent urge to urinate

  • Pain or burning sensation during urination

  • Lower abdominal pain or tenderness

  • Bedwetting

  • Cloudy or foul-smelling urine

  • Presence of blood in urine

  • Fever

  • Nausea

  • Pain in the sides or upper back


UTI Treatment Options


Typically, doctors prescribe oral antibiotics for UTIs, selecting the medication based on the likely infection source and common bacteria causing the UTI. Treatment often begins before urine test results are available.

If the initial antibiotic doesn't target the bacteria causing the UTI, the prescription may be adjusted based on test results.



For lower urinary tract infections, antibiotics are usually taken for a week or less, while upper-tract infections may require antibiotics for up to two weeks. In rare severe cases, hospitalization for intravenous antibiotic administration may be necessary.


Causes and Factors Contributing to UTI

Sexually transmitted diseases, notably chlamydia and gonorrhea, are common UTI causes in the urethra, especially among younger men. Additionally, prostate issues like BPH can obstruct urine flow, heightening UTI risk.



Prostatitis, which is an infection of the prostate, shares many of the same symptoms as UTIs.

Medical conditions such as diabetes that impact the immune system can increase susceptibility to UTI.


Complications Arising from UTI

Left untreated, a lower UTI can ascend to the kidneys, typically treatable by doctors. However, rare cases may lead to chronic kidney disease or failure. Serious complications like sepsis may necessitate hospitalization for treatment.


Prevention

Using condoms during sex can reduce the risk of STDs, thus decreasing UTI likelihood. Additionally, addressing prostate issues can also lower UTI risks.



Sources-Harvard Health Publishing: “Urinary Tract Infection in Men,” “Men and urinary tract infections.”

National Kidney Foundation: “Urinary Tract Infections.”

Mayo Clinic: “Prostatitis.”






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